Near Balfour an arm of the lake branches westward to Nelson, where the Kootenay River exits the lake below Corra Linn Dam. In 1902, Armstrong decided to take North Star to sail on the Columbia instead, finding business on the Kootenay less and less profitable as the mines in the region played out, as the CPR established its Kootenay Central Railway branch,[58] and for a variety of other reasons. This focus is on ecosystems and habitats, rather than a … Lower Kootenay River Dams (from International Kootenay Lake Board of Control – International Joint Commission – IJC). - X1KFD7 from Alamy's library of millions … 6 tips to keep you safe . 7 smaller hydroelectric dams. Already knowing from earlier maps that the region included two rivers called the Columbia and the Kootenay, Thompson thought that what is now called the Columbia was the Kootenay, and he thought that he had not yet found the real Kootenay. Power generated at Kootenay Canal plant is fed into BC Hydro's provincial grid via two 230 kV transmission lines running south to Selkirk Switching Station, near the Seven Mile Generating Station. Origins of West Kootenay hydropower. Starting this summer, an extensive project will begin replacing spillway gates and improving other elements of the dam. River levels are controlled by the Libby Dam upstream in Montana, so boaters should be alert that river levels can rise or lower quickly. 1.1.1 Owyhee River dams; 1.2 Kootenay River dams; 1.3 Pend Oreille River / Clark Fork River dams. The Kootenay drops 365 feet (111 m) in the 25 miles (40 km) between Kootenay Lake and the Columbia River. Because of the size and strength of the river, fishing from drift boats is easier than from the shore. View top-quality stock photos of Hydro Dam Across Kootenay River Canada. The total run was about 500 kilometres (310 mi) long, ranging from Golden to the north to Jennings, Montana in the south, with a portage at Canal Flats. The Kootenay Lake ferry is a year-round toll-free ferry that crosses between Kootenay Bay and Balfour. The Kootenay Canal Generating Station, completed in 1976 by BC Hydro, has its inlet at Kootenay Lake next to Corra Linn. Steamboats also operated briefly on the lower river and Kootenay Lake to service silver mines in the nearby mountains. [98], Logging began in the 19th century as a result of white emigration to the Kootenay region, and remains one of the primary industries of the area. In 1973, the Libby Dam was built, forming Lake Koocanusa and which extends back into Canada. Whitewater rafting is popular on the Kootenay in two stretches: in Jennings Canyon between the Libby Dam in Montana and Bonners Ferry in Idaho, and in the upper reaches of the river[146] in Kootenay National Park in British Columbia. The northern Ktunaxa hunted buffalo, while the southerners mainly fished. The river area across from the Celgar Pulp Mill and below Keenleyside Dam offers superb shore fishing. [99] In fact, much of the economy of the Pacific Northwest and Columbia Basin has historically been, and continues to be, to this day, dependent on the lumber industry. The Kootenai River begins in Kootenay National Park in British Columbia. It may also mean "deer robes," referring to their excellent skill for hunting deer. Because the waters of the river are regulated by the dam, the flows and water levels can be erratic. As early as 1898, without building a dam, the original Lower Bonnington Power Plant was generating hydroelectricity from Bonnington Falls in the Kootenay River near the confluence of the Slocan River in order to supply water to mines in Rossland, British Columbia. The new town's site was officially named Kootenai (though still known as Fisherville), also spelled Kootenay and Koutenais and also known as Wild Horse. It is the first of the dams that the Kootenay encounters durings its journey and provides further regulation of the water that flows into Kootenay Lake. [107], Lead, zinc, copper and silver are still mined at some places in the Kootenay River basin, notably at the giant Sullivan Mine near Kimberley, British Columbia, which is the largest in the Kootenay watershed. The roughest water was in Jennings Canyon, now mostly submerged in the Lake Koocanusa reservoir behind Libby Dam. John Palliser crossed the Rockies through a pass in 1858 that led to the headwaters of the Palliser River, a tributary of the Kootenay River now named in his honor. [68] In 1909, he purchased about 14,000 acres (57 km2) adjoining the mouth of the Kootenay River partly using funds raised by sale of farm equipment in Saskatchewan,[68] and added to other lands acquired throughout BC, Doukhobor-owned lands ultimately totaled 19,000 acres (77 km2). [14], Comparisons of various U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps from the 20th century show many misinterpretations or alternative names being applied to the segment of the river within the United States. [72] Brilliant was one of the first cities in the area to have running water; a reservoir was constructed to hold water from the Kootenay River and a local spring,[73] and by 1912, each household had running water. Its drainage basin is 2.443 square kilometres in area. [102] The river becomes significantly larger at its confluence with the Vermilion River, which is actually the larger of the two where they meet near Kootenay Crossing. Prior to their discovery by Europeans, they were known as Ksanka, "people of the standing arrow". We monitor the lake levels throughout the year, which are governed by the 1938 International Joint Commission order on Kootenay Lake. The uncontrolled discharge past the Canada-U.S. border created problems for electricity generation in the US, and Canada also wanted to utilize the Columbia river for the production of hydroelectric power. [62] The first steamboat to actually run the Kootenay was the Annerly in 1893. 2 water storage dams that don't generate power. Kootenay Lake-Wikipedia Simply use a tri-swivel with a ¾ to 1-ounce weight and a 14-inch leader to a hook baited with a dew worm and small scented marshmallows. Castlegar is DAM interesting. [148] In Montana, the river is rated a Class I water under the Montana Stream Access Law for recreational purposes from Libby Dam to the Montana-Idaho border. [46] They re-blazed the trail for many miles and returned to Kootenay Lake by mid-October of the same year. Several Canadian outfitters provide trips on the river near Kootenay National Park ranging from a few hours to several days. Keep watch. The Kootenay River runs 781 kilometres (485 mi) from its headwaters in the Kootenay Ranges of the Canadian Rockies, flowing from British Columbia's East Kootenay region into northwestern Montana, then west into the northernmost Idaho Panhandle and returning to British Columbia in the West Kootenay region, where it joins the Columbia at Castlegar. The Kootenay River originates in the Rocky Mountains near the source of the Columbia River. [28] Glacially deposited sediments buried the old streambed of the Kootenay River and created a natural dam where the Kootenay turns west out of Kootenay Lake. It then empties into 100-kilometre (62 mi)-long Kootenay Lake, which is also joined by the Duncan River, the largest tributary in terms of volume. Keep a close eye on the river and you may catch a glimpse of the West Kootenay Power hydroelectric dams that harnessed the river … HISTORY. [141] Smaller Kokanee Creek Provincial Park, one of the more popular recreation areas in the West Kootenay, sits across the river from West Arm. Kokanee and rainbows are commonly found in Lake Koocanusa. The best rig to use when shore fishing is a bottom setup. The river drops some 117 metres / 385 ft from Nelson, starting with Bonnington Falls Dam built in 1916 to supply mines and smelters in the region. The mountains in much of the Kootenay River catchment are composed of Precambrian sedimentary rock of the Belt Supergroup, in turn stratified into several subgroups with slightly different characteristics and ages. While the Columbia flows north around the Big Bend to Mica Dam, the Kootenay River flows south. In addition there are five hydroelectric dams on the lower Kootenay River in British Columbia. Below Libby Dam, the river flows for 50 miles to the Idaho border. West Kootenay Power & Light was evaluating the Brilliant Canyon as the site of what would be their lowest and largest dam on the Kootenay River as early as 1934. [56][125] There were also never-implemented plans to divert part of the Kootenay enlarged Columbia River through a tunnel to the headwaters of the Thompson River in the northwest, and thence to the Fraser River valley of southwestern British Columbia. [88], Riparian vegetation is mostly found along the lower two-thirds of the Kootenay and many of the tributaries that join within the United States. His expedition made it downstream to Columbia Lake, but had some trouble making their way back to Alberta; the return route that they had chosen proved too dangerous to negotiate. In 1973, the Libby Dam was built, forming Lake Koocanusa and which extends back into Canada. Instead of crossing the Rockies, as Thompson did, Palliser set out from Fort Colville, a Hudson's Bay Company trading post near Kettle Falls on the Columbia River. Mining is also an important economic support of the Kootenay River area. Facilities: 4 major hydroelectric dams, all built before 1984. The canal is used to generate hydroelectricity, as are the four dams. [58] Later vessels, such as the Gwendoline, had mixed success. Four run-of-the river hydroelectric dams impound this part of the river. plus . [93] This is attributed to a Kootenay River flood a long time ago, before the construction of any dams on the Columbia (Columbia River dams now block salmon from reaching any of the salmon run streams above Chief Joseph Dam[94] [70], When they first arrived in British Columbia, the Doukhobors began felling trees in the Kootenay River valley to build their first homesteads. Because of the steep rapids and falls between Kootenay Lake and the river's mouth, the Kootenay (with the exception of its tributary, the Slocan River)[92] has never been a significant stream for the annual runs of Columbia River salmon. On the south and southeast, the divide formed by the Cabinet and Whitefish ranges separate the Kootenay and Flathead River watersheds. None provide for navigation or fish passage. By 1865 the peak of the rush was over and the diggings had been found not as rich as previously believed when news arrived in 1865 of the strikes in the Big Bend of the Columbia and the bulk of the mining population moved there en masse. Articles pertaining to dams in operation, under construction or planning on the Kootenay River in the United States and Canada. This dam, 4.5 km. The countryside, as is typical of northwest Montana, is mountainous with thickly covered forested slopes. [101] Agriculture, however, is a much less important industry, and many of the fertile riverside lands have been flooded by the construction of dams (most notably Libby Dam in Montana, which backs water into Canada). One may fish from banks, sandbars and islands, or from boats. South Slocan Dam KOOTENAY RIVER. Rafting the middle Kootenay between Libby Dam and Bonners Ferry is best at flows of 230 to 340 cubic metres per second (8,000 to 12,000 cu ft/s). Steep and strewn with rapids, the Kootenay, despite being unsuitable for commercial transportation of agricultural and mineral products, is considered an outstanding whitewater river. Fish in the Kootenay have traditionally been abundant but the construction of the dam may have led to declines in the population of sturgeon, among other fishes, because of changes in water flow. [77] The Doukhobor leader was buried in an elaborate tomb on a headland overlooking the city of Brilliant and the Kootenay and Columbia Rivers. It would also make easier the reclamation of the Kootenay Flats, an area south of Kootenay Lake, for agricultural purposes—spring freshets once raised the level of the lake by up to 8 metres (26 ft), inundating the lowlands around it. But according to FortisBC, which operates four dams to the south on the Kootenay River, the water at Six Mile typically reaches its peak from May to July. Within a 55-kilometre drive, there are 11 dams on the Columbia, Kootenay and Pend d’Oreille rivers. The whole area was known by the name, Dolina Ooteschenie, meaning "valley of consolation". [151], This article is about the river. [2] The Geographic Names Information System of the USGS lists "Swan River" as an alternate name although the origin of this name is uncertain. Use this interactive map to learn about the Columbia River system including reservoir levels, dams, reservoirs and hydro generation. [89] There are no endemic fish within the Columbia Glaciated region itself. The glacier that formed Kootenay Lake caused the river to back up into an enormous body of water that stretched all the way to Libby, Montana, near where the Libby Dam now stands, and possibly even connected to Lake Pend Oreille, which also was much enlarged at the time. Ecosystem Function Discussion Paper 21/3/18 3/7 Upper Columbia Basin Environmental Collaborative Figure 2. Mountain ranges in the region generally trend from northwest to southeast and define drainage patterns with their steep and dramatic vertical relief, with the exception of the Kootenay itself which cuts westwards at its southern bend. In this section several dams supply power to the base-metal smelter and refinery at Trail, B.C. [96], Even before non-aboriginal people came to the region, the Kootenay River valley was an important path of trade and transport between the tribes of the Canadian Rockies and the Idaho Panhandle, mostly between the Ktunaxa (who practiced agriculture and aquaculture)[97] and the Salish, Blackfeet and Pend d'Oreilles of the south and east, and with the Shuswap in the north. [25] Most of the coal from the East Kootenay coalfields is exported to Japan and Korea. Right: BC Hydro’s Kootenay Canal facility. 2 of 2 FortisBC employees work on installing a natural gas line. Download this stock image: View of the Cora Linn Dam and Kootenay Canal on the Kootenay River just outside Nelson. It has three generating units with an operating head of 21 m (70 ft). The countryside, as is typical of northwest Montana, is mountainous with thickly covered forested slopes. [147] The run, about 60 kilometres (37 mi) from east to west, includes Class IV+ rapids and includes Kootenai Falls, which rarely has been run safely, in the middle of its course. Use the reset button to return to a map view of the Columbia Basin i [36] After spending a winter in Montana, he tried to reach the Columbia by traveling down the Pend Oreille River but failed in this attempt, eventually returning to Kootenae House via the Kootenay River northwards the following spring.[37][38]. Negotiated in 1961 between the governments of the two countries, the Columbia River Treaty attempted to ratify these problems. [50][53] Other gold rushes on the Moyie and Goat Rivers, tributaries of the Kootenay, were followed by the discovery of silver and galena mines in the Kootenay Lake and Slocan Valley areas (Silvery Slocan), leading rapidly to the settlement of the region and the creation of various "silver city" boomtowns, notably Nelson, at the outlet of Kootenay Lake, Kaslo, midway up its north arm, New Denver, Silverton, Slocan City and Sandon in the 1880s and 1890s. Over 90 percent of the Kootenay basin is forested, but only about 10 percent of the area is not affected by some kind of lumber-industry development, now defined as about twenty "roadless areas" or "blocks", with 18 in the US.[101]. [93][95], Populations of large land mammals such as caribou, moose, deer, elk, have been declining dramatically since the reintroduction of wolves. [47] The expedition's findings were later to become important transportation routes through the Rockies to the Kootenays area, and the trail that they followed later became the route of the Canadian Pacific Railway. 6 tips to keep you safe . After more settlers began arriving, they built larger buildings that housed multiple families, instead of the small cabins then typical of the region. Upper Bonnington dam on the Kootenay River with spillways open. [106] Map of the Kootenay River, its main tributaries and lakes, and major cities. [7], While searching for the ultimate source of the Columbia River, explorer David Thompson encountered Columbia Lake, where the Columbia River starts north as a small stream and the Kootenay rushes south, already a powerful river. "Kootenai" is thought to be a word meaning "water people" in an Algonquian language. Corra Linn Dam is a concrete hydroelectric dam on the Kootenay River in the Canadian province of British Columbia.It is located where the West Arm Kootenay Lake flows into the Kootenay River. He crossed over the Canadian Rockies through Howse Pass and eventually arrived on the banks of the Kootenay, which he thought to be the Columbia. Both are tributaries of the South Saskatchewan River, which is part of the Hudson Bay drainage basin. lower on the river, uses all the water from the Kootenay Canal to produce hydroelectric power, returning the water to the river at this point. In Canada, these include those listed below as well as many others. [10] In his writings, the Columbia from Columbia Lake to the Big Bend was actually called the Kootenae. [133] Cross-country skiing and snowshoeing are popular on the park's trails in the winter. Located just north of Kootenay Lake at the confluence of the Duncan and Lardeau Rivers, Duncan Dam was designed to collect heavy spring runoff to prevent flooding downstream and to help maintain the flow of the Columbia – the Kootenay River feeds the Columbia as a tributary – for electricity production in the winter. These include "Kootanie", "Kootenie", and "Kootienay". [16][17], At the small town of Canal Flats the Kootenay River passes within 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) of Columbia Lake, the headwaters of the Columbia River, as it merges into the Rocky Mountain Trench along the eastern foothills of the Selkirk Mountains. [115] Supervise children at all times and leash pets. [134] Mount Assiniboine Provincial Park, which sits right next to Kootenay in the Rocky Mountains, also has an extensive trail system affording extensive views of the surrounding ranges. Two of the first steamers, the Duchess and the Cline, both sank when transporting miners to the Wild Horse gold rush on the Kootenay. and Kaniksu National Forest (part of the Idaho Panhandle National Forests, which stretch southwards into the state). An undated bathymetric map of Kootenay Lake at Six Mile shows the depth around the sand spit to be approximately 30-to-60 centimetres, roughly between the ankle and knees of an adult. Construction on the No. — Photo courtesy FortisBC . Kootenay River & the Brilliant Dam . Class I represents bodies of water that are navigable and suitable for recreation. [12][13] The river is still referred to as Kootenai in the United States,[2] while in Canada, where two-thirds of its length and 70 percent of its drainage basin lies, the river is spelled slightly different into Kootenay. Through the early 19th century, Thompson continued to trade furs throughout the Kootenay region for the North West Company,[39] and for the few years when he had a total monopoly over the Canadian fur trade west of the Rockies, he outlawed alcoholic drinks altogether. I'm left to fend for myself on the Raft and I almost immediately run into icy trouble. The current Columbia River Treaty is focused primarily on electricity generation and flood storage. Keep a close eye on the river and you may catch a glimpse of the West Kootenay Power hydroelectric dams that harnessed the river for well over a century. Check All Station Name Province Station Number Data Available (Past 6 hours) Operation Schedule; ADAMS LAKE NEAR SQUILAX: BC: 08LD003: Yes: Continuous: ADAMS RIVER NEAR SQUILAX These rivers that dams were later established on were originally used by indigenous groups, in the West Kootenays, notably the Sinixt Nation. Species almost entirely gone that were once common in the area include the white-tailed jackrabbit, pygmy short-horned lizard, band-tailed pigeon and passenger pigeon. Verigin was succeeded by his son, Peter P. Verigin, who arrived from Russia in 1927. Thence he applied the name "McGillivray’s River" to the real Kootenay in honor of his trading partners William and Duncan McGillivray. [65] In June of that year, Armstrong took North Star to the Baillie-Grohman Canal, which was in decrepit condition. [126], The proposal was strongly opposed by both environmentalists as well as local residents. To the southwest is the Priest River, a Pend Oreille tributary. In Idaho the river enters the gentle terrain of the Kootenai Valley,[19] turning north at Bonners Ferry[16][17], The Kootenai re-enters Canada and becomes the Kootenay again south of Creston, British Columbia, and flows through a marshy area called the Kootenay Flats. [51][52], Fisherville, which had a Hudson's Bay post and other businesses, continued on with a few hundred residents for a few years (most of them Chinese by the end, as was the case with many other BC gold towns also) but was eclipsed as a supply centre with the creation of nearby Fort Steele. [123][124], In the 1970s, it was proposed that the Kootenay River be diverted into the Columbia River (the two rivers are separated by a distance of no more than 2 kilometers (1.2 mi) near Canal Flats in the Rocky Mountain Trench in southeastern British Columbia). (However, at first, his party referred to it as Palliser's River.) Libby Reservoir, formed by impoundment of the Kootenai River in 1972, is a 90-mile-long storage reservoir with a surface area of 188 km2 (46,500 acres) at full pool. This body instrumentalized turbulent through turbines howls electric under clear skies in early spring As the flood unearths bones that swirl in eddies dislodged from the riverbanks As sorrowful songs rise from its body its currents and gather in the pools where the water slows And this body sings [69] The Doukhobors then constructed a brick factory at the present-day site of Grand Forks, from where they made bricks to be used mostly in the Brilliant settlement. Commercial navigation began with steamboats in the 19th century to transport ores, lumber, passengers and other imported and exported products between the Kootenay River valley and the Canadian Pacific Railway station at Golden, British Columbia. [111][112] [83][84] The other sections of the river flow through far more rugged terrain and are characterized by braiding, low nutrient content, shifting channels and coarse sediments, making it difficult for riparian zones to be established, as is with most of its upper and lower tributaries. [17][24], The geologic story of the Kootenay is strongly connected to the geology of the Columbia, Selkirk and Rocky Mountains. [42] Columbia River Basin Map. The people along the lower river called it aqkoktlaqatl, a name whose meaning is not certain. Rafting and kayaking is also an activity on the swift-flowing Slocan River, the lowermost major tributary of the Kootenay, and in parts of other major Kootenay tributaries as well. Brilliant dam on Kootenay River near Castelgar, British Columbia, Canada Picture - Red Circle Images RM. [135] Kikomun Creek Provincial Park, on the northeast shore of Lake Koocanusa, includes campgrounds and access to boat launches on the east shore of the lake. Most of the reasonably level terrain lies in the narrow Kootenay River valley from Bonners Ferry to Kootenay Lake and in parts of the Rocky Mountain Trench from Canal Flats to Lake Koocanusa. FortisBC owns and operates four hydroelectric generating facilities on the Kootenay River and has invested millions in upgrading the dams in order to deliver a safe and reliable supply of electricity for years to come. [67] He chose a townsite on the north bank of the Kootenay, where it joins the Columbia, across the big river from where the present-day town of Castlegar now stands. [44] He then proceeded up the Pend Oreille River (noted as 'Pendoreilles') and crossed into the Kootenay River valley, which in his records was either the "Kootanie" or "Flat Bow River". Below Libby Dam, the river flows for 50 miles to the Idaho border. Boat travel on the upper river ceased when a rail line was built along the Kootenay upstream of the big bend. The river was described with slightly different names by two groups of the local Ktunaxa (Kootenai) Indian tribes. [40] When two of Thompson's trading partners tried to make him take two barrels of rum to Kootanae House, Thompson "placed the two kegs on a vicious horse and by noon the kegs were empty and in pieces, the horse rubbing his load against the rocks to get rid of it … I told them what I had done, and that I would do the same to every keg of alcohol. D ’ Oreille rivers levels, dams, reservoirs and Hydro generation articles pertaining dams! Those made to three generator units Flat Bow Lake '' Plains tribes of. Submerged in the background: Fortis BC ’ s lower Bonnington Dam, City of Nelson powerhouse, Bonnington! As a result, this proposed River diversion was never undertaken find premium, high-resolution stock photography at Getty.... Park ranging from a few hours to several days: Click icons in the region has also used... 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